Author Archives: Angela Williamson

Feb. 05.

How to Treat Aggression Among the Autistic Population

There are significant deficits seen within the Autistic Disorder, such social deficits, sensory deficits, perceptual deficits, and communication deficits (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals with autism will characterize inappropriate social interaction with others or inappropriate play. They also demonstrate atypical body movement, such as body rocking, hand flapping, covering their ears or eyes. Many individuals will autism have challenging behaviors, such as self injurious, aggression towards others, and outbursts (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).

Aggression is common and occurs higher with individuals who have autism compared to other developmental disabilities (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). It has been speculated that aggression among the population with autism occurs due to frustration from social difficulties, missed cues and the inability to communicate (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).  It has been reported that 68 percent of individual with autism will experience aggression at some point in their lives (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).   Parental stress comes from challenged behavior and aggression in children with autism (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).  Aggression affects the daily lives of individuals with autism and invokes stress on the family and caregivers (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).  Individuals with autism who exhibit extreme aggression towards themselves and others are likely to be hospitalized (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).  In addition, they are more than likely to be place in a residential setting. Ironically, it can also limit their access to residential living, respite, recreation activities, hinder their learning and their interpersonal skills with others, and treatment programs, (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). There may experience social isolation, depression, and become stigmatized by others (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).

Families are more than likely to be the sole caretakers of their child with autism and how they handle the aggression can significantly exacerbate the problem (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). A study was conducted on aggression in individuals with autism and the impact it had on their families; it revealed that the families experience property destruction, physical harm, safely concerns for siblings, isolated from others, lack of respite care, and the lack of funding in providing services to these families(Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). Some families reported in the study that there were problems in receiving treatment or schooling for their family member with autism because of their aggressive behavior. Many were pleased with the multidisciplinary support which includes education, medical and behavioral management from an array of professionals (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). However, they were somewhat disappointed in some professionals’ lack of knowledge in helping to resolve or decrease aggression in their children with autism and could not provide answers for them (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). Moreover, these parents also reported in the study that the professionals were not sympathetic to their struggles and ignored their concerns about their children aggression. because there were appearing as typical to them (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). Many parents reported that they had few lifetime resources to help them with their children with autism, such a crisis care, quality respite care, and safe alternative setting for living, etc (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).

The medical community advocates the use of pharmaceutical approaches to managing aggressive behaviors in individuals with ASD, such as antipsychotic risperidone (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). The medical community reported in literature that risperidone showed some positive results in decreasing aggression in the population with autism(Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013).

Other medications used in among those with autism are a2-adrenergic agonists aslproate, olanzapine, atomoxetine seem very promising with professionals in the medical field in help those with autism. A report revealed that within one year, about 83 % of children with autism were prescribed by their doctors at least one drugs out of the 125 drugs (Hughes, 2008). The mostly prescribed drugs were anticonvulsants, anxiolytic/sedative/ hypnotics, hypotensives, stimulants antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and tranquilizers/ antipsychotics (Hughes, 2008). In a given year, about 70% of children with autism at the age of 8 received psychoactive medicine (Hughes, 2008). Parent should be very cautious when using medicine. They can cause possible brain damaged and other health problems. Medication should be the last resort. Many of the behavior can be addressed thought alternative means and behavioral therapy.

Parents and clinicians preferred to use behavioral intervention  rather than antipsychotic medications (Hodgetts, Nicholas & Zwaigenbaum, 2013). There are concerns that antipsychotic medicine could have negative effects on the developing brain in child with autism with long-term usage ( Rimland, 1987& 1988 & 1997).

Parents of children with autism often will seek alternative medicine to help with their children aggression and challenging behaviors. Alternative professional speculate that autism is more of metabolic problem (Rimland, 1987 & 1988 & 1997). The leaky gut or gut hyperpermeability is often seen in the autism population cause by various sources, such as Candida, heavy metal toxicity, etc (Rimland, 1987 & 1988 & 1997). Many individuals with autism have been found to have sensitivity to chemicals, food allergies or intolerances, vitamin and mineral deficiency that contribute to their autistic symptoms or challenging behaviors (Rimland, 1987 & 1988 & 1997). Many individuals with autism are known to have intolerances to proteins called casein found in milk and gluten found in wheat or other in grains (Knivsberg, Wiig, et al 1990).  They are also sensitive to other foods that cause the same problem. These proteins do not break down to the smallest unit and leak out of the gut to travel to the brain region inducing brain allergies or the immune system will identify them as foreign and will elicit an antigen response that cause an allergic reaction (McCann et al, 2007). Multitudes of individuals with autism have an impaired immune and digestive system that keep them from completely digesting certain foods that they are sensitive to or show intolerance (Adams, 2013). The symptoms can varies such as ‘drunk’ or ‘high’ behaviors, rashes on the body, rages, headaches, aggression, etc. (Rimland, 1988). Additives that are used in foods are known to cause hyperactivity in children (McCann et al, 2007).  Artificial colors and flavors are also known to cause challenging behaviors, hyperactivity and aggression among the autism population who are sensitive (Adams, 2013). Therefore, avoiding the foods are very vital in treating behavioral problems, learning difficulties, allergies, etc.

Parents and professional test their children by eliminating certain foods from their diet through dietary log and elimination diets (Adams, 2013).Elimination diets involve taking out the most commonly known food that causes allergies for a few weeks and then reintroducing them (Adams, 2013). Elimination diet can be done with multiple or single foods items IgE or IgG testing help to determine allergies or sensitivities in the blood. The IgE is for immediate allergy reaction response and the IgG is for the delayed response of an allergy reaction (Adams, 2013). The skin testing is done to help determine immediate immune response (Adams, 2013). Testing the blood with the IgE and the IgG methods are not always accuracy or very limited in revealing allergies or sensitivities, despite clinical symptoms (Adams, 2013). Some professional may use the scratch test for immediately immune response; however, this test is also very limited.

Biomedical treatments include the implementation of the gluten / casein free diet and other dietary plans based the needs of the individual with autism. The implementation of probiotics, digestive enzymes, vitamin and mineral, melatonin, antifungal, essential fatty acids, improve diet, many more (Adams, 2013). A study done by Autism Institute Research(ARI) surveyed parents about their success or improvement with biomedical treatments. Over half reported that they had have success with this kind of treatment (Adams, 2013).

Feb. 05.

Indivduals with Autism are Trapped in their Own World

Three-quarters of children with autism exhibit IQs in mental retardation range (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). The individuals with higher function autism are considered to have IQ above 70 (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). The Verbal IQ (VIQ) is the Wechsler IQ profile use for individuals with autism and is lowered than the Performance IQ (PIQ) (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). This profile can be used for as a diagnostic for differentiating between and Asperger syndrome (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).  There is a discrepancy in the reliability of the VIQ-PIQ with individuals with autism(Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).  The closer the individual with autism reaches the normal range; his or her autism diminishes (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).  The Block Design subtest has a high peak among the population with autism (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).  This subtest is from the Wechsler Performance Scale (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).

However, I dispute that autism individuals are mentally challenged. How do we know what individuals with autism know, if they are trapped in their world.

Young child with autism who participate in research are very useful in finding an underlying precedence for any kind of neuropsychological deficit Scale (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). A study discovered a deficient performance amongst the younger children who have autism (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). The working memory, inhibitory control, set-shifting capacities, and spatial reversal task (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). The impairments were associated joint attention, which is very common in autism in the beginning (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).

The execute function among individuals with autism is known to be impaired and problems with retrospective memory; however, little research is done on the prospective memory(PM) (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012).  The PM refers to performing a task at a particular time in the future. For instance, remembering to keep a doctor appointment for next week or turning off the water when the bath tub is full would be an example PM (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012).  Researchers make a distinction between time-based and event-based PM (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012).  Event-based refers a particular event at a certain time, such as taken the pot out of the oven when the bell rings on the timer and rely on the cued to carry out the task (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012). Time-based event can be described as an event that is time based, such as removing the pot from the oven in 15 minutes and has to be self-initiated(William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012).The difference between time-based and event-based PM, is that event-based uses less execute resources than time-based(William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012). A study reveal that individuals with autism had difficulty in carry out the plan of , but were able to monitor the time as they check the clocks conyinually (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012). It also suggest that they retain the task instruction and understood the need for them monitor the time (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012). This study demonstrates that PM event-based and time-based was separate abilities (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012). The theory mind is often diminished in individuals with autism, which could be linked to the impairment in time-based with cognitive aptitude among this disorder (William, Boucher, Lind & Jarrold, 2012).

Feb. 05.

Weak Central Coherence and Autism

Studies suggest that individuals with autism have a weak central coherence (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). They recognize the hidden parts and are not susceptible to visual illusions (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). Individuals with autism would fail to utilize linguistic framework to interpret or disambiguate homographs during read aloud (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001). Conversely, there several studies that demonstrate evidence of an intact global processing abilities in those with autism, which will contradict the weak coherence hypothesis (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).  It could actually be the neuropsychological foundation remains to be elucidated that are likely to consist of numerous of interacting anomaly and deficits in attention (Tager-Flusberg Joseph, & Folstein, 2001).

Feb. 05.

Is the Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Illness in Adults with Autism Comparable to Other Disorders?

Studies were done to see the prevalence and incidence of mental illness in adult with autism is comparable to the whole intellectual disabilities adult population (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008) Conversely, when comparison was with gender, age, ability and Down syndrome, there were no differences. (Melville & Cooper, 2008). The high prevalence was due to behavioral problems, which was not attributed the presence of autism in the individuals. (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). There was a trend that illustrates the low incidence of behavioral problem in adults with autism compared to the control group in the study, but is not supported by statistics. (Melville & Cooper et al, 2008). During a two year period, the recovery rate of challenging behaviors was notably lower for adult with autism (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008)

Screening tool used in the study for psychiatric disorders was the PAS-ADD Checklist for adults with intellectual disabilities (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). This checklist is comprise of 29 item to help determine psychopathology frequently experience with this population (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). There was a physical to help rule out any health problems that contribute any psychiatric issues (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008).

During the first study, researchers use the matched control method to identify the confounding factors that relate to mental illness and challenging behaviors (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). The female population in this study had higher rates of depression (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). They did not have psychosis (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). However, the male population in this study was reported to have a higher rate of challenging behaviors (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). Behaviors that would make psychiatric referrals for this population would be self-injurious behavior, destruction of property, verbal aggression, physical aggression towards others, etc(Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008).

A  current study reports difference in the prevalence of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities and adults with intellectual disabilities without autism in experiencing mental-illness(Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). There are several authors that have pinpointed that the experience of depression has increased with adults who have autism and intellectual disabilities (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008). There was a similar finding in a study by Tsakanikos (Tsakanikos et al.2006) However, the solid support of evidence in the study is lacking (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008).  The link of autism and schizophrenia has been explored; however, the link has not supported in this study (Melville, Cooper & et al, 2008).

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Feb. 05.

The History and the Changes in Defining Autism

Dr. Leo Kanner coined term infantile autism based his observations of behavioral disturbances seen in a small group of children (Levy et al, 2001).  Nowadays, the concept of autism is more broadened due extensive research by the medical community.  The autistic disorder was a rare disorder of yesteryears about 2 to 5 per 10,000 during the 1970s (Levy et al, 2001). It is now more common than Down syndrome disorder. There is one in 88 children on the autism spectrum disorder in the United States that was based on 14 communities from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study in 2008. The rate of autism is now a public health concern in identifying risks (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).  Boys are five times more than likely to be diagnosed with autism than girls (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).  It is uncertain in the medical community whether the increase was due to improvements in methodology of identifying and reporting the diagnoses of autism from pediatricians or from the clarity and broadening the diagnostic approach and procedural guidelines. The diagnostic criteria for diagnosing autism have notably changed in DSM V (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).  For instances, the autism spectrum was identified under the Pervasive Developmental Disorders category, which included the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Autistic Disorder, and the Asperger’s Disorder. These disorders now receive a separate diagnostic label with further distinctive characteristics based on their severity and are no longer under the Pervasive Developmental Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The Retts disorder was removed from DSM V under the Autistic Disorder.

The populace became aware of autism when Kanner brought it popularity in the 1940s; however, there were evidence that autism exist long before (Gupta,2003). Attention was given to a group of children who exhibit ‘Disintegrative psychosis’ in year of 1867and children with behaviors similar to those with autism in 1908 by Beuler (Gupta,2003). In the 1919, a clinical psychologist named Lightner Whitmer, had seen a child who was 2 ½ with autistic behaviors. This disorder or Asperger is believed or suspected to be seen in famous people such as Henry Cavendish, a famous scientist (Gupta,2003). Thomas Jefferson was suspected to have Asperger due his aloofness and fixation when he was a child (Gupta,2003).There was a Scottish landlord who was referred to as mad, but he symptoms of autism and was documented in court from his dissolution of marriage as suggestive autism. Autism was once viewed as childhood schizophrenia (Gupta, 2003).

References:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., text rev.). Washington,D.C.

Gupta., V.B(2003).The history, definition and classification of pervasive developmental disorders. EP Magazine .pp 58-62

 

 

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Feb. 28.

Autism and Vision Therapy

Visual perceptual dysfunction is very  prevalent within the autism community.  It affects how they interact, learn, relate, see, etc., within their surroundings.  Visual perceptual difficulties do not relate to farsightedness or nearsightedness, but how the visual system processes or interprets information. Many individuals with autism will look at people from the side of their eyes. They may use one hand to cover one eye to look out the other eye. This allows them to get a complete or better view of people or objects. They may also avoid eye contact with others all together, due to their perceptual difficulties. Some may flap their hands to help interpret their environment. Many will have difficulties with trying to match objects. Some are unable to make out letters on printed paper.

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As a result, many individuals with autism may rely on their auditory input, if it is not an issue as well. This contributes to them becoming self-absorbed or  sticking to routines. When this routine is disrupted or changed, “melt downs” or “stimming” can occur. Melt downs are usually outbursts or when individuals with autism are extremely upset. They can also have meltdowns when they are visually overstimulated. Stimming refers to self-stimulation. Individuals with autism use stimming to help them cope with stressful events or as a mechanism to soothe themselves for various reasons.
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Most individuals with autism have trouble with spatial relations, visual discrimination, visual memory, visual closure, visual tracking, etc., within their visual system. Some have difficulty in processing shapes from an undifferentiated background. For example, letters that are written in chalk on the board would be difficult for them to organize, process, and interpret.

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Many of them have difficulty with visual motor skills. Fluorescent lights often have a negative effect on those with visual perceptual problems, especially among the population with autism. Many will walk through things, step over or on people, and touch everything in sight. Unfortunately, many professionals who teach individuals with autism are not familiar with visual perceptual dysfunction and vision therapy. Therefore, they dismiss it as an issue with their visual system. This problem contributes to behavioral and learning problems within the autism community. Most individuals with autism benefit from vision therapy!

 

 

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Aug. 02.

As Within So Without

As within so without! Your belief system and thought patterns inside your mind will show up in your surroundings. People often seek happiness outside of  themselves, instead of finding it within. If you want to change  your life, go inside your  subconsciousness and change those deep rooted beliefs. .

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Mediation is one proven method in listening to your inner guidance from the divine or to access the cosmic universe within. Affirmations are also good because it retrains the mind. However, the affirmations must be believable and worded in the present tense. For example, “I am happy” or “I am at peace.” When you use “I am,” you align with the divine or universe. It can also be worded in the past tense to get through the subconscious mind. For example, “I have always been happy” or  “I have always been at peace.” The subconsciousness plays out in the physical world by attracting  certain people, circumstances, events, etc to you. This gives the meaning as within so without validity.

 

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Visualization is also a great tool in manifesting the life you want, because it falls into the metaphysics of  ” As within so without.”  It can be done by using all of your senses by seeing it, feeling it, smelling it, tasting and living it.  Go through the imagination of having it already and let it play out like a movie in your mind. Believe that it is happening for real and it manifest on the physical plane.

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Write down your thoughts or desires you want to see in the physical world. View them three times or more daily, focus on them continuously and  align vibrationally with these thoughts or desires.

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Have faith in what you want  to accomplish. Don’t let hurdles get in your way. It could be the universe or the divine testing your faith. If you believe it within, it will manifest in the physical. As within so without. “Walk by faith and not by sight.”

 

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Jun. 19.

Autism is Treatable!

Autism now affects children more than any diseases or disorders combined. As of 2013, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reports that 1 in 50 children is on the autism spectrum disorder. Boys are now five times higher than girls to be diagnosed with this disorder. One in 54 boys and 1 in 252 girls are affected by autism. Individuals with autism can significantly improve their quality of life with various treatment programs. Autism does not have to be the prognosis of no hope, but of healing. Autism is treatable!
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There are multitudes of reports suggest that thimerosal, live viruses,  aborted fetus tissues, aluminum, additives, toxins and other poisonous ingredients found in vaccines cause autism in some children. Food allergies, chemical sensitivity, viral or bacterial infections, environmental toxicity, etc., can contribute to the symptoms of this disorder as well.

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Alternative or holistic medicine has healed many within the autism community by addressing their symptoms from a place of origin and establishing homeostasis within the body. The mind, body, and spirit must be all in sync. Many individuals with autism have many imbalances within their body caused by various factors.

Parents are given limited options or resources for their children with autism from the medical community. As a result, many individuals with autism remains stagnant. Many behavior therapists will not considered using flexible programs, such as Son-Rise, floortime or the Rapid Prompting Method. Many will dismiss these programs, despite their effectiveness and will stick to a rigid program.

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Some programs such as the Son-Rise program work among the autism community in a positive and unconventional way. This program believes in joining in with those who have autism while they engage in self-stimulatory behaviors or what interests them the most. For example, if the individual is rocking back and forth, rock with them. When you get their attention, start connecting with them. Celebrate with a big cheer each time they connect or engage with you. This connection is an opportunity to teach those with autism social skills, academic, language, etc. The Son-Rise program also emphasizes on using excitement, enthusiasm, and energy while teaching them.

The Son-Rise program stresses the importance of having a nonjudgmental, loving and accepting attitude while working with those on the autistic disorder spectrum. Many children overcame autism as the result of the Son-Rise program.

Floortime is another great program that respects autism and believes in building relationships by  actively engaging with the population of individuals who have autism. The teacher or provider take an interest in what the child is doing  or what the child is experiencing. This method can be done anywhere in the house, outside, in the supermarket, etc.

However, it must be done at a convenience time and place for both the facilitator and the individual with autism.  Many individuals with autism have healed or gained a lot of skills through this method, such as language, academic skills, self care skills, social skills, etc. The individual with autism and the facilitator must have some type of rapport that is mutually enjoyable.

Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) uses desirable reinforcements to get desirable behaviors to occur. Once the individual with autism achieves the desirable behaviors, they are rewarded with a reinforcer, such as preferred activities, preferred items, small pieces of food,  praises, etc.

This is called discrete trials. ABA can be a structured environment or flexible one, depending on the teacher or behaviorist. ABA  also uses prompting to show the individual with autism the desirable behavior during discrete trails, if necessary. ABA has incorporated many other techniques similar to the floortime or Son-Rise program to make it more child-centered.

The Rapid Prompting Method (RPM) is another program used to improve the communication skills and help achieve academic success to those with autism. According to RPM’s philsophy, “Despite behaviors, the academic focus of every RPM lesson is designed to activate the reasoning part of the brain so that the student becomes distracted by and engaged in learning.” Watch the 60 minutes video clip below on Rapid Prompting Method created by Soma Mukhopadhyay.

All of these programs must be flexible and not rigid. Individuals with autism should not adapt to a program, but the program should adapt to them. Autism must be respected. Beware of schools who do not want to see progress in those with autism because they can get more funding. Stay on top of your child education. Autism is treatable!

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Jun. 05.

Autism and Special Solutions for Special Diets

Some children are allergic to a variety of foods, which limit their diets significantly.  Parents are very concerned with their children’s nutritional intake.  They believe that they will lack certain vitamins and minerals because of dietary restrictions. Furthermore, parents think that special diets such as the casein-free/gluten-free diet can be very hard on children’s emotional and physical well-being. If these diets are followed correctly, the child will feel much better and can still enjoy events.  With this dilemma, how do you rectify the situation so that the child will feel that he or she is included?

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Well, here are some suggestions for you to consider to alleviate the problem.  You can bring some foods that the child is able to eat, if possible. For example, at birthday parties, most children will have cakes that made are from wheat.  You can talk to the parents ahead of time, explain your situation, and arrange to bring an extra cake that is gluten-free and does not have dairy in it. This can also be done when the child is in school.  The teacher can notify you ahead of time if there are going to be parties, so a substitute can be given to the child.

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Communication from the home to the school and vice versa is very important for this diet to be successful.  If you experience problems, you can put this on the child’s Individualized Education Plan(IEP) and the school will have to comply. The school cafeteria can help provide alternative foods for your child, if this is stated on the IEP.  The child can bring some gluten-free and casein-free goodies to school to share with classmates.  The other children will enjoy them as well and no one will left out.

However, if you are still having problems with your child craving forbidden foods, avoid having these foods around him or her without a substitute that they can eat and enjoy. Some children are known to steal the allergic or sensitive food items from others.

This excerpt is found in the
Book Efeective Treatment and Soltutions for the Autistic Population by Angela Williamson

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Apr. 23.

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

What is the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP)?

This program was created under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (PL-99-660) and  enacted by Congress to compensate individuals who have been injured by vaccines. It  was  also to  institute vaccine safety reform for the general population. There are three govermnent offices that are involved with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, which are:

  • the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    (HHS);
  • the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ); and
  • the U.S. Court of Federal Claims (the Court).

What is the purpose of National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program?

The purpose of this program is to compensate individuals who were injured from U.S. licensed vaccines. The vaccines manufacturers did not want to go bankrupt, so the U.S. government created this program. You must file within three years from the first symptom, or 2 years from the death or 4 years  from the first symptom before death in order to be compensated for your injury.

How are individuals compensated and how is this program funded?

The U.S.  Courts of Federal claims decide who gets paid. The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program is funded by an excise tax of .75 cent for each vaccine that is recommended by the Center for Disease Control (CDC).For example, the measle- mump-rubella (MMR) is taxed about $2.25 because it prevent three separate diseases. The tax is collected and managed by the Department of Treasury.

How to file a claim?

Click on this link and follow the instructions.http://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/

How to contact U.S. Courts of Federal Claims

U.S. Courts of Federal Claims

717 Madison Place, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 357-6400

 

How to contact National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program?

National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP)
Parklawn Building, Room 11C-26
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, Maryland 20857
Phone: 1-800-338-2382